A bloody nose (Medicine: epistaxis or English: epistaxis) or a nosebleed is a state of bleeding from the nose that comes out through the nostrils.
There are two types of nose bleeding:
• Anterior type (front). Is the type that usually occurs.
• Posterior type (back).
In some instances, blood can come from the sinuses and eyes. Besides bleeding that occurs can enter the digestive tract and can cause vomiting.
In general, the causes of nosebleeds are divided into two, namely:
Local causes are mainly trauma, often due to traffic accidents, exercise, (such as due to nose blows) accompanied by a nasal fracture (as in the picture on this page), nosing a nose that is too hard so that the nose mucosa, tumor in the nose, there is a foreign object (something that goes into the nose) usually in children, or leeches that enter the nose, and infection or inflammation of the nose and sinuses (rhinitis and sinusitis)
Systemic causes mean that the disease is not only limited to the nose, which often causes nosebleeds is hypertension, systemic infections such as dengue or chikungunya fever, blood disorders such as hemophilia, thrombocytopenic purpura autoimmune.
Blood flow will stop after the blood has been frozen in the blood clotting process. A medical opinion says that when bleeding occurs, it is better if the head is tilted forward (sitting position) to drain the blood and prevent it from entering the esophagus and stomach.
The first aid if there is a nosebleed is to squeeze the front nose for three minutes. During squeeze, it is best to breathe through the mouth. Mild bleeding usually stops this way. Do the same thing if there is repeated bleeding, if you don’t stop, you should visit a doctor for help.
For chronic nose bleeding caused by dryness of the nasal mucosa, it is usually prevented by spraying nasal salts three times a day.
If caused by pressure, ice packs can be used to shrink blood vessels (vasoconstriction). If it still doesn’t work, a nasal tampon can be used. Nasal tampons can stop bleeding, and these media are installed 1-3 days.
Death from nose bleeding is a rare thing. However, if it is caused damage to the maxillary arteries can result in heavy bleeding through the nose and is difficult to cure. The act of giving pressure, the vasoconstrictor is less effective. It is possible to cure the maxillary artery structure (which can damage the facial nerve) is the only solution.