Managing Public Relations CL [James E. Grunig] on by James E. Grunig and Todd T. Hunt is a must-have for PR students and professionals. Get this from a library! Managing public relations. [James E Grunig; Todd Hunt]. GRUNIG & HUNT’S FOUR MODELS OF PUBLIC RELATIONS. In the book “Managing Public Relations” from James E. Grunig and Todd. Hunt.

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William Sledzikassociate professor of journalism and mass communication at Kent State University:. For example, can we represent the interests of loyal employee groups while our shareholders demand layoffs in favor of low-cost offshore suppliers?

In this model, accuracy is not important and organizations do not seek audience feedback or conduct audience analysis research.

Managing Public Relations – James E. Grunig, Todd Hunt – Google Books

However, the communication pattern is still one-way. What is public relations?

The two-way symmetrical model is deemed the most ethical model, one that professionals should aspire to use hujt their everyday tactics and strategies Simpson, Some experts think of public relations more broadly. Furthermore, the goal is to disseminate communication based on the two-way symmetrical model presented by Grunig and Hunt Here, practitioners are negotiators and use communication to ensure that all involved parties benefit, not just the organization that employs them.


The public information model moves away from the manipulative tactics used in the press agent model and presents more accurate information. Why do companies need public relations?

Consider this example from Dr. Skip to content Increase Font Size. It is a one-way form of communication.

Managing Public Relations

Finally, the two-way symmetrical model argues that the public relations practitioner should serve as a liaison between the organization and key publics, rather than as a persuader.

Practitioners do not conduct audience analysis research to guide their strategies and tactics.

Still, persuasive communication is used in this grunlg to benefit the organization more so than audiences; therefore, it is considered asymmetrical or imbalanced. Discussion Point Do you think the two-way symmetrical model is plausible? Do you think the two-way symmetrical model is plausible?

William Ggrunigassociate professor of journalism and mass communication at Kent State University: One example is propagandist techniques created by news media outlets in North Korea. These models serve as guidelines to create programs, strategies, and tactics. However, this book focuses on a public relations approach based particularly on writing for the media.


Some press relatios and newsletters are created based on this model, when audiences are not necessarily targeted or researched beforehand. For instance, they may argue that political lobbying is a form of public relations because lobbyists engage in communication activities and client advocacy in order to shape the attitudes of Congress Berg,