DEFINISI EMFISEMA SUBKUTAN Emfisema subkutan disebut juga emfisema jaringan adalah suatu keadaan terakumulasinya gas atau udara di lapisan. showed pneumomediastinum and subcutan- eous emphysema with mediastinal air dissecting into the neck and supradiaphragmatically. A. Subkutan Amfizem ile Gelen Spontan Pnömomediastinumlu Bir Erkek. Adölesan. Spontaneouse Pneumomediastinum with. Subcutaneous.

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Extra-alveolar air in the form of subcutaneous tissue emphysema is observed in a variety of clinical settings. Spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema in the absence of pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum is very rare. We report a case of spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema secondary to cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis in the absence of pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum. Subcutaneous emphysema is not an uncommon scenario in clinical practice and usually secondary to trauma to thorax, upper gastrointestinal instrumentation, dental extraction, primary or secondary pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum etc.

We report one such case where patient presented with severe shortness of breath and subcutaneous emphysema that was secondary to direct communication of cavitary tuberculosis lesion of right upper lobe into the soft tissue of chest wall. A year-old farmer presented with complaints of breathlessness, with swelling over the right side of the chest for past three days. This was sudden in onset after a bout of coughing leading to an initial swelling at the right side of the chest and then spreading to whole chest, neck, arm and face over the next few hours.

History was positive for low-grade fever and mild productive cough for two and a half months. He was on irregular symptomatic treatment and apparently well till the last three days.

He denied any history of violent coughing, trauma to chest, any lifting of heavy weight, violent vomiting or retching etc. He had neither associated chest pain nor any history of hospitalization or any medical or surgical procedure in the recent past. No previous history of any breathlessness was noted. However, he had no addiction to cocaine, cannabis or alcohol. Bowels were not constipated but for the past three days, sleep was decreased.

On examination, there was swelling over neck, chest and right upper limb [ Figure 1 ]. The skin over the second intercostal space showed an expansile impulse on coughing.

There was no evidence of mediastinal shift or cardiac tamponade clinically, and neck veins were sibkutan. On palpation there was no tenderness. A characteristic rice Kris pies sensations were present over the swelling area.

subcutaneous emphysema – emfisema subkutan – personal glossaries

Surgical crepts were heard on auscultation. There was no mediastinal crunch. Classical cavernous type of breathing was present in right infraclavicular area. As the patient was in respiratory distress, he was immediately put on high flow oxygen and bronchodilators.


Subcutaneous emphysema in cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis without pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum

Manual reduction of emphysema was attempted by multiple subcutaneous incisions at the level of thoracic inlet. Subcutaneous emphysema initially reduced, but only to recur after several bout of coughing. Other body system examinations were unremarkable. Photograph of the patient showing subcutaneous emphysema over right side chest, neck and arm. Skiagram chest PA view disclosed extensive subcutaneous emphysema, right upper zone cavity, along with emphysematous changes [ Figure 2 ].

There was no evidence of pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum or gas under diaphragm.

Ultrasound subkuyan abdomen was reported to be normal. X-ray chest showing extensive subcutaneous emphysema, a cavitary lesion at right upper zone but no pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum. As the patient did emfisems improve even after 24 hours, a CECT scan of the chest was done that showed diffuse subcutaneous emphysema subkutab with a large cavity at right upper lobe of lung communicating to the subcutaneous tissue resulting in a cavernous-pleuro-soft tissue fistula [ Figure 3 ].

The cause was attributed to the high tension inside the cavity. Hence intercostal tube drainage was introduced into the cavity. Free air leak was observed during spontaneous breathing but the subcutaneous emphysema reduced rapidly. The patient was put on anti-tuberculosis drugs in combination along with broad spectrum antibiotics, bronchodilators and oxygen.

Chest tube was removed after six emfiesma and the patient was discharged on the tenth day on anti-tuberculosis drugs and supportive therapy. CT scan chest showing subcutaneous emphysema and pulmonary cavitary lesions communicating with the soft tissues of chest wall. Presence of air in the subcutaneous layer of skin is called subcutaneous emphysema.

When it is secondary to any surgical procedure, it is called surgical emphysema and when cause is unclear, it is called spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema.

Alteration in breathing pattern in a submutan of situation that is shouting, singing, straining, violent coughing, spirometry, asthmatic paroxysms, mechanical ventilation etc. Subcutaneous emphysema may be noted in association with pneumothorax, or subkutaan, secondary to pathological changes in the respiratory tract.

Subsequently the air spreads into the neck and subcutaneous planes. It tends to accumulate in areas where the subcutaneous tissue is most relaxed. Subcutaneous emphysema secondary to tuberculosis may develop due to associated pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, or following the chest tube insertion. A tear of such pleural symphysis into subcutaneous subkuran may produce emphysema giving rise to a typical crepitus.

The CT scan picture clearly depicted a communication of pulmonary cavity to the subcutaneous tissue caverno-pleuro-soft tissue fistula in our case. The cavity was probably under tension and allowed seepage of bronchial air through a tear to create emfiseema emphysema.


With the release of tension and treatment of underlying disease, leakage of air stopped gradually and patient improved subsequently. Subcutaneous emphysema is usually benign, producing cosmetic symptoms and at times visual problems. Once progressing beyond the stage of tactile fascination, it will require prompt intervention to allay the anxiety of patient and to prevent potential complications such as hypoxia, cardiac tamponade and sudden death.

Management lies in managing the primary cause and its treatment. Additional high flow oxygen helps to correct hypoxia and denitrification of the blood which hastens reabsorption of subcutaneous air. Subcutaneous emphysema may be manually reduced by multiple skin incisions at the level of thoracic suboutan, placement of subcutaneous drain — HEMOVAC drain and regular 20 F chest tube.

Checking the patency of an in situ intercostal chest drainage tube and mild mefisema of the subcutaneous drain are other measures to correct this otherwise self-limiting condition. National Center for Biotechnology Information emflsema, U. Journal List Lung India v.

Ramakant Dixit and Jacob George. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Subcutaneous emphysema in cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis without pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Extra-alveolar air in the form of subcutaneous tissue emphysema is observed in a variety of clinical subkkutan.

Air leak, pulmonary tuberculosis, subcutaneous emphysema. Open in a separate window. Footnotes Source of Support: Nil Conflict of Interest: Subcutaneous and mediastinal emphysema- pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. Spontaneous cervical and mediastinal emphysema. Malignant interstitial emphysema of lungs and mediastinum as an important occult complication in many respiratory diseases and other conditions: An interpretation of the clinical literature in the light of lab experiment.

Dixit R, Dave L. Pneumomediastinum with subcutaneous emphysema in a silico-tuberculosis patient. Subcutaneous emphysema in pulmonary tuberculosis. Indian J Chest Dis. Interstitial and mediastinal emphysema complicating acute miliary tuberculosis.

Spontaneous mediastinum associated with pulmonary cavitation. WB Saunders Company; Subcutaneous emphysema secondary to pulmonary cavity in absence of pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum. Massive spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema: Articles from Lung India: Support Center Support Center. Please review our privacy policy.