EL ARTE COMO ARTIFICIO; Autor. Shklovski. INTEGRANTES: Antonieta Ontiveros Ruiz; Adriana López Núñez; Gabriela G. Agis Mendoza. Dra. Flor de María. 16; Louis Vax, Arte y literatura fantásticas (Buenos Aires: Eudeba, ), p. 6. 2. Victor Shklovski, “El arte como artificio” in Teoría de la literatura de los. Shklovski, Viktor (). El arte como artificio (). In Todorov, Tzvetan (Ed.), Teoría de la literatura de los formalistas rusos. Argentina: Siglo XXI, pp.
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viktor shklovski el arte como artificio pdf writer
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The respective owners reserve all rights. Possible worlds in philosophy 11 2. Can video games tell stories? In my mind, I am a game developer.
But in my heart, I am a gamer. The bulky toy catalog of an important shopping center in Barcelona was the favorite reading for all children and the big worry for all parents. But ineverything would change. Backed by its success in Japan and the United Statesthe Nintendo Entertainment System NES took up half a page in the shklpvsky catalog and was launched with a quirky game about a plumber who must save a princess from a artiifcio. A plumber named Mario.
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On May 23, — almost 25 years later — the prestigious Princess of Asturias Award in the Communications and Humanities category went to Shigeru Miyamoto, arguably the most famous video game designer in history. And, along with this, the female audience and families have seen new ways of gaming, with Wii, social media and mobile platforms, suited to their preferences and tastes.
Thus, the video game is to this day a cultural object that participates equally with other actors in the public imagination. In addition, the technical and artistic development, transmedia power and popularity of its universes, has allowed video games to comoo its first and simplest gaming mechanics into vast, rich online fictional worlds open to different gaming experiences.
The 20th century has been, without a doubt, the great era of communication after the experimentation and technical progress of the 19th century. With the development and consolidation of film, radio and television into the mass media industry, came the arrival of the Internet at the end of the 90s as a symbol of globalization.
All of these mediums, including more traditional media like the press, have been objects of study in Spanish academia to a greater or lesser extent. However, the careful study of the past quarter century and the first decade of the current 21st century shows that one of the most important communicative, aesthetic, narrative and cultural expressions has been systematically ignored by academia: Data emphasizes this curiosity even further.
Television is losing its audience because of the Internet as well as the growing consumption of video games by children and adults especially by women and the elderlywho are attracted to video games that foster language learning, improve health or exercise the brain and intellect. And contemporary action films are increasingly influenced, aesthetically and narratively, by the great productions of Nintendo, Sony and Microsoft.
Regardless of the reasons that have ostracized the study of video games in Spain, it must be noted that its epistemological standing is currently in a state of remarkable emergency. Both in Europe especially in Nordic countries and the United States, video games have become an object of essential study to understand communication in the 21th century Egenfeldt Nielsen et al.
Thanks to these contributions, electronic entertainment has gradually started to build a theoretical basis srte sheds light on this unexplored and complicated terrain. Within this context of academic emergency, shkoovsky propose an approach to video games from a seldom used perspective, even in the field of communication studies: The Possible World Theory was born within a long philosophical tradition, especially after contributions from Samuel Kripke and Analytical Philosophy, which aims to explain the role that the possible and the necessary play in the existence of mankind.
In this case, possible worlds were those conceived in stories and poems and, therefore, fiction was constructed as shk,ovsky true space of action, complex and rich with nuance.
But much has changed since the era of arcades filled with new gaming machines and youth spending hours playing emblematic titles like Space Invaders Taito Corporation, or Pac-Man Namco, Today, video games have not only developed playability and graphic-sound capacity, but also have managed to build fictional worlds similar to film, theater or literature.
Therefore, games make up real possible worlds inserted into the logic of fiction and contribute sbklovsky a critical way to the current cultural imagination of contemporary society. Above all, video games ep fictional and cultural objects. That being said, this present work proposes a theoretical-practical focus based on the fictionality, interactivity and ludic perspective of the medium to analyze the construction of possible fictional worlds in electronic entertainment, or what we shall refer to as the configuration of ludofictional worlds in video games.
This research is chiefly based on ckmo major knowledge areas and their conceptual features. First is Philosophy, the idea of possible worlds and conflicts with fiction. Second is literary and audiovisual Narratology with the controversial concepts of mimesis, fiction and narration. In any case, and to avoid losing focus on research with interdisciplinary guiding principles, the Theory of Fiction is determined as the central axis, specifically the analysis of semantic and pragmatic components of fictional worlds in an essentially interactive relationship, i.
Therefore, in this book, contemporary video games are considered complex fictional worlds that participate, as cultural objects, in inserted relationships within current social, economic, and political frameworks.
However, the design of a theoretical framework and a methodological system for the analysis of ludofictional worlds must pass some preliminary phases of research: In this sense, it is essential to use them in the preliminary chapters with an interdisciplinary approach formulated by Analytical Philosophy, Language Philosophy, Narratology and various contributions from the field of Literature and Film Studies.
In this way, we can establish and uphold a concrete meaning of each one of the concepts at hand. After establishing the concrete meaning of each term, and along with the contribution of some key theoretical concepts, including Possible Worlds, Indexicality and Metalepsis, we will make a global adaptation of the concept of video games as objects of study.
In this sense, traditional fictional worlds will be conceived as active game spaces, a model made by previous design game design with a prescribed ludic experience game playwhich may be expanded by activity unanticipated by players play.
This relational model between game design, game play and play form the nucleus of the Theory of Ludofictional Worlds. The complexity of current video games and the many possible scientific approaches lead us to construct a theoretical-practical model with three different dimensions that may necessitate distinct levels of analysis, but that simultaneously show interrelation in their meaning.
In this way, ludofictional worlds may be studied from a Macrostructural Static Dimension, a Microstructural Dynamic Dimension and a Metaleptic Dimension. The Macrostructural Static Dimension involves understanding the ludofictional world as a formal system of linking together possible worlds. Thus, it becomes especially useful to analyze the global structure of each video game and the use of narrative worlds cutscenes and ingame scenes in the structure of the ludic experience.
In this way, this dimension emphasizes the idea that ludofictional worlds are predetermined spaces for action and relationships with other fictional beings that may sometimes become the central axis of the ludic experience.
The final rate of meaning, the Metaleptic Dimension, replaces the idea of interactivity by proposing the narratological concept of metalepsis as the connection between the fictional world and the external user who is provided with certain mechanisms to participate in it. Thus, this perspective studies the physical and symbolic artifcio between the player and the world and vice versa, the internal leaps between different fictional levels and the sporadic and extraordinary disruptions to fictional boundaries that some characters may undergo.
The pessimist fears it is true. Thus, it is convenient to start our theoretical framework with a reflection on the idea of worlds and the implications that they have on the fields of Philosophy and Literature, as well as the study of video games.
The idea of worlds is one of the most complex and flexible concepts in the history of thought. From a strictly physicalist perspective, the world is seen as a totality and the organization of all things that exist on planet Earth, while in the Humanities, the world is seen as a system that integrates ways of thinking — the Christian world, the pagan world — or imaginary elements — the world of Emma Bovary, the world of Sherlock Holmes. In the same way, the idea of worlds helps divide history into concrete periods — the world of Romanticism, the Greco-Roman world ckmo or link different elements involving the same key player — the world of Mozart, the world of Chaplin.
As we can see, this multifaceted concept presents some common elements in all its applications: These constructs, especially those related to political and social thought, are essential for understanding our reality as immediate, just as they are involved in our daily choices. For example, the idea arrificio slavery plays a very different role in the Western world today than it played in the Roman cultural world: As a matter of fact, many worlds are conceived in opposition to other worlds.
The proto-democratic world of flourishing Athens was overtly contrary and opposed to the autocratic and strict Spartan world, while the world of science defended by Galileo could not coexist with the Theocentric framework of the hegemonic Renaissance Catholic Church.
Thus, from Greek and religious teachings to new forms of digital communication, humanity has constructed collective imaginary worlds of different natures and scopes to design, spread and maintain certain worlds, but also to analyze and oppose them.
From a social perspective, popular language has also taken hold of the idea of worlds to distinguish what is common practice or accepted in the structure of the real or actual world from that which deviates from the norm.
Thus, in Mathematics, worlds help explore distinctions and contradictions among paradigms, while in the field of artistic studies, representation and the matter of referentiality make up the central elements of contemporary debates. Faced with the Aristotelian structure of beginning, middle and end — which had established the dominance of a certain narrative over any other kind — other ways of considering space and time gradually became introduced; non-linear structures.
These new narrative methods emphasized those possible stories that never appeared in traditional structures Branigan,p. At the same time, Chaos Theory Prigogine and Stengers, brought the idea of possible worlds to life in the field of science by highlighting the tendency towards irreversible chaos and, thus, the rejection of a single substantial and consistent reality in time.
Along with the idea that other worlds are possible, contingency that is, the potential that things can or cannot be also put sequential structures into question and, therefore, the traditional concept of time as a linear and ordered system. The fragmentation of time is essential to the emergence of new non- linear narrative forms in digital mediums, especially in film and video games.
In this section, and as a preliminary component to a theory of video games as ludofictional worlds, a theoretical overview of the possible is put forth. Therefore, the structuring and complexity of the possible within the idea of possible worlds is explored, both from the perspective of Philosophy — with different relationships between the real and the possible, and the complexity that non-real characters and scenarios introduce to fiction — and its application to the field of Literary Fiction and theoretical-methodological concepts.
This discipline made classic logic adaptable to formulating new concepts regarding the realities of our world that had difficulty fitting into this vision. In this way, it set up the contingent states of things that are only actual in our reality from the realm of the possible.
On one hand, possible worlds establish certain links between each other, called accessibility relations, which allow transitivity between them. On the other hand, possible worlds consist of two fundamental attributes: As we can deduce, the attribute of completeness necessarily implies the attribute of consistency, and vice versa. We shall see as such in the following example: If —P were true, we would then have, on one side, a contradiction that P and —P are true at the same time — John is and is not a physician — and incompleteness — in world W there is the same physician and non-physician John.
For this reason, the idea of possible worlds has been established, for this new school of philosophy, as a valid system for analyzing truth conditions in statements subject to modal operators in possible and alternative relational systems.
In this way, possible worlds are constructions of how things could have been if they 1. In scientific works of Philosophy, it is common to present examples with consecutive numbering between parentheses.
Here we have chosen to do the same with the aim of respecting this tradition. They distinguished between being and existence. Depending on how such questions are answered, philosophers have grouped themselves as either possibilists, where the possible remains above the real; hyperactualists, where possible worlds either do not exist or their existence is irrelevant; and actualists, where the current world remains above possible ones.
Considering the scope of this book and to avoid distractions and theoretical confusion, only an analysis of the first group will be addressed. Therefore, possibilism admits possible but non-existent worlds and objects. To clarify, we shall imagine the following example: From a possibilist perspective, the statement is not limited to establishing a simple qrtificio which, conversely, many philosophers, possibilists or otherwise, could accepti.
In fact, possibilism goes one step further by considering that aliens pre-exist artifciio they are, and if subsequently they exist for us for example, because they land on our planetit would not invalidate the previous statement.
Therefore, the possibility itself already exists or better, pre- exists and the real world understood as the actual world is simply the result of the choice between one of many.
Second, classic possibilism defends the independence of possible worlds without a priori casual relations existing among them, nor hierarchies of any kind since, otherwise, we would find ourselves facing actualist positions, as we shall see later.
Or, in other words, a possibilist possible world is a system of complete, self-sufficient and autonomous arttificio of things. This acknowledgement of pre-existence and independence, along with the ideas of being and existence, is key for understanding the approaches of the two main representatives of possibilism: Gottfried Leibniz and David Lewis.
Leibniz suffered the ridicule of his rationalist colleagues for his reflections on possible worlds and the existence of God.
As a result, the term Panglossian defines somebody who displays naivety before the vicissitudes of the world in which he lives. In any case, the greatest problem related to Leibnizian possibilism lies in the erroneous interpretations that have grown stronger with time3. As Aguado Rebollo notespp.