Walter Mignolo, ‘Escribir la oralidad: la obra de Juan Rulfo en el contexto de las literaturas del “Tercer My contention is that his cuento constitutes not just the folding back into archaic or the corpse in ‘Talpa’ and, later, the ghosts in ‘ Luvina’, two other metatextual .. organismos completos, ciclos cerrados, y respiran’. Transcript of Presentación oral Juan Rulfo de la muerte y conflictos familiares en las siguientes obras: “Talpa” y “No oyes ladrar los perros.”. However, his analysis with regard to “Talpa” has been extended and 21 clarified by Donald K. Luis Leal published “El cuento de ambiente: ‘ Luvina! de Juan Rulfo” in En otras, se olvidaba por completo de que su hijoexistia . (p.

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Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Full text of ” Narrative techniques in the short stories of Juan Rulfo.

Alfred Hower, and Dr. Allen, for their careful guidance and their many helpful suggestions. Without their thoughtful advice, this dissertation could never have been finished. Romeince Lemguages and Literatures The purpose of this rullfo is to show that the disori- entation and confusion which the reader experiences when he reads the short stories of Juan Rulfo are the result of Rulfo’s manipulation of four technical elements.

One chapter is devoted to each of these, and one chapter each to the introduction and conclusion. The first chapter briefly recounts the high points of Rulfo’s life. It also examines briefly the major criticism which is relevant to the topic under study, as well as delimiting the twenty stories to be studied. These are, besides the fifteen published as El llano en llamasfive sueltos: It is shown that the basic characteristic which can be ascribed to point of view in these stories is instability.

It changes tappa and often subtly.

El Llano en llamas by Juan Rulfo

Rarely is a story told from just one point of view, although one can find frequent statements to the contraary among Rulfian critics. Oiapter III deals with the time element. Three general time- categories are established, and the stories are classified within them.

The category with the fewest stories in it consists of those stories in which time flows at uneven speeds. The next largest cate- gory consists of stories which are atemporal, euid the largest consists of stories in which there is a partial suspension of time. This group is seen as having two types of stories within it: The idea that time is suspended in all of Rulfo’s stories, common in Rulfian criticism, is rejected.

Chapter IV deals with the way in which the reader receives the facts of the story. The author’s manipulation of these varies from completely withholding them, to forcing the reader to deduce them from the story, to introducing them unexpectedly. It is shown that the difficulty which the reader experiences in establishing and ordering the central facts of the narrative derives from the way in which the author introduces them.

The fifth chapter considers the setting; in two very general cate- gories. The first category includes settings which are characterized as skeletal. This type of setting is suggested by giving several of its elements without any details.

A typical device nuan the creation of this type of setting is the use of unmodified nouns, such as el corral or una silla. The second category includes settings which are more completely described but which are composed of elements of nebulosity, such as fog, smoke, haze, or dust, and which tend to shroud the physical sur- roundings from comleto reader’s view.

Chapter VI concludes that the complexity with which Rulfo tells his stories is masked behind their apparent simplicity. The satis- faction which the reader receives from these stories depends largely upon his willingness to work with them in order to appreciate Rulfo ‘s creative ability.

His use of the surname Rulfp can be attributed to his interest in family history, which has led him to discover that Juan del Rulfo, an eighteenth-century Spanish adventurer, 2 was probably his first ancestor in the New World. When he was just a small child, the Cristero war left Rulfo an orphan, so he went to live with his grandparents. Under the direction of French nuns, he progressed talpaa through grammar school, but just as he entered high school a ruofo student strike caused him 3 to move to Mexico City at the age of fifteen.


After finishing high school there, he found a job at the Archive de la Secretarla de Gobernacion.

This was very fortunate for Rulfo because it was there that he met a young writer named Efren Hernandez. Not only was Rulfo able to learn much about writing from Hernandez, but later, when Hernandez was one of the directors of the literary magazine America4 he helped Rulfo to publish some of his first stories.

In an effort to achieve some measure of financial security, Rulfo studied accounting, but at the same time managed to attend some university literature courses. A reserved, withdrawn man, Rulfo has frustrated the efforts of many critics to meet with him and discuss his works. His reticence may reveal a lack of con- fidence which could explain his relatively meager production to date. In spite of this lack of production, he stands today as a major figure in Spanish-American literature and even in world literature, his works having been translated into numerous languages, including English.

In November,he was awarded Mexico’s Premio Nacional de Letras, a prize which carries great honorary and monetary signifi- 7 cance. In addition to these, five other stories were published as sueltos. The first was “La vida no es muy seria in sus cosas,” published originally in in an obscure literary magazine. In addition to these works, he is known to have worked on two other novels. The first of these. El hijo del desconsuelo. Rulfo thought so ill of the work that he destroyed it.

Emmanuel Carballo, in an article entitled “Las letras mexicanas de a ,” published in Ideas de Mexicostates: Eh El llano en llamas estan ausentes las asperezas tecnicas, los anacrbnismos de que se valen cuentistas de la hora, estando presentes, en cambio, las tecnicas que han orientado la novela y el cuento por nuevas sen das. El monologo interior, la simultaneidad de pianos, la introspeccion, el paso lento, son usados por Rulfo con notables resultados.

Hay cuentos que son un puro monologo; otros que siendo monologos, admiten espora- dicamente el dialogo, sostenido por la misma persona que cuenta alternaindo con, su memoria que reconstruye escenas y situaciones; en toda la coleccion se observa el paso lento, el triunfo de las figuras sobre la trama, del autor sobre el tiempo. This is true of most of the gu-ticles which deal with Rulfo’s stories. Among the serious studies of Rulfo’s technique, Carlos Blanco Aguinaga’s article “Realidad y estilo de Juan Rulfo” is the 19 20 earliest.

His perceptive analysis of Rulfo’s use of repetition to achieve a suspension of time provides valuable insight into Rulfo’s technique. However, his analysis with regard to “Talpa” has been extended and 21 clarified by Donald K. Furthermore, Blanco Aguinaga’ s 22 attempt to apply his findings equally to all twenty stories would seem rather tenuous see Chapter III.

InJames East Irby presented an M. Rulfo is one of these four narrators, and Irby finds Faulknerian influence in Rulfo’s world view, its reflection in structure, the recalling of incidents of the past, the.

Luis Leal published “El cuento de ambiente: This brief article attempts to show that “Luvina” represents better than any other contemporary Mexican short story, cuentoo story of atmosphere, in which plot, climax, and characters are minimized, and total importance is given to atmosphere, arovind which the narration Cueento organized. He also tends to include too many marginal items under technique, such as Rulfo’ s mexicanidad25 and fails to investigate other essentials with sufficient profundity.

His chapter on “En la madrugada” contains sin excellent analysis of the time element of the story and how its use results in confusing the reader. He terras “No oyes ladrar los perros” Rulfo’s most perfect story, and points out its dramatic and stylistic condensation. Rodriguez-Alcala finds in “Luvina” an ancestor of Pedro Paramoand compares the town of Luvina with Comala, the setting halpa the novel. He says that the uniqueness of the longest of Rulfo’s stories, “El llano en llamas,” resides in the fact that it is the only one which ends with a basic shift in the character 26 of the protagonist, and on a note of hope.

Ceunto only point of dis- agreement with Rodriguez-Alcala would be in regard to the innocence of Esteban in “Eki la madrugada. The critic who has dealt most extensively and intensively with Rulfo’s stories is Donald K. Gordon attempts complleto show how Rulfo pre- sents the peasant’s miserable life cueno structure, style, language, and narrative devices.

He organizes his thesis around six modes of narration which he perceives in tapa stories: Although at first this orgginization would seem well -devised, a closer inspection reveals numerous flaws in it. It is unnecessary here to enter into all of the discrepancies in the classification which Gordon has set up; one example will suffice to demonstrate the point.


He einalyzes “No oyes ladrar los perros” in the chapter entitled “Dialogue. It is certainly not a dialogue in the same sense as “El dia del derrurabe,” in which the whole story is an exchsmge between two characters without an omniscient author. Galpa article of value on technique in Rulfo’s stories is “Yuxtaposicion como tecnica en un cuento de Juan Rulfo: Dee author attempts to show that the structure of the story is organized according to a series of juxta- positions which are found both within and outside of the work itself.

Except for the fact that she ignores until the end of rukfo article the protagonist’s obvious mental derangement, which is basic to under- standing the story, the article is useful in ordering the chaotic series of images which constitute the story. The present study has as its purpose to demonstrate the use of narrative techniques in the creation of reader disorientation in Rulfo’s stories.

Although Hugo Rodriguez-Alcala has already touched upon this point in his analysis of “En la madrugada” when he affirms that ambiguity and borrosidad are the essential notes of Conpleto 30 narrative style, he does not categorize and cuehto the specific elements which produce these effects. This dissertation will attempt rulco show that narrative techniques in the areas of point of view, the time element, methods of communication, and the creation of setting result in leaving the reader with the feeling that what he has read is illusory, deceptive, comlpeto, blurred.

Any study ds that the material in question be carefully delimited. In the case of Juan Rulfo’s short stories, the only one which may need a special explanation of why it is included among the body of material to be studied is “Un cuento. Thus the question which must be considered is whether or not “Un cuento” represents a truly autonomous work or is merely a preliminary draft of a part of Pedro Paramo.

Gordon has dealt very well with the problem in his 32 dissertation. He systematically analyzes textual differences between “Un cuento” and Pedro Paramopointing out changes from one to the other which reveal an accommodation to the requisites of each genre. He also states that “the short story’s overriding importance is in its totality as the seed of germination for the novel” p.

He nevertheless comments on and considers the story as an entity itself, a position which, on the basis of his deft analysis, leaves no room for disagreement. We shall begin our study with a consideration of Rulfo’s use of point of view. A story must always be told by someone, and the re- lation of the teller to the story can have a major impact on the reader’s reaction to the story.

The narrator links the reader with the story, so we will begin by studying this compleo. We shall then proceed to examine the time element. Always a complexity, Rulfo’s depiction of time forces the reader to be constantly alert for an unexpected interpretation of temporal reality. Following this section comes a consideration complsto the way in which the information of the story is furnished to the reader, and the way in which the reader becomes disoriented through Rulfo’s manipulation of this information.

Finally, a look at the settings of the stories is cpmpleto essential part of the study. An alternative approach to this study would be to deal with each story as a unit, examining each of the four basic technical elements that Rulfo uses to achieve reader disorientation. The advantage of such an approach is that the unity of the individual stories would completoo less damage than it suffers in the present study.

Such an approach, however, offers certain obstacles and for that reason was rejected as a. The first disadvantage of such an approach is that it offers no logical, convenieint principle of organization.

Juan Rulfo

We have already noted that Donald K. Gordon, in his dissertation, tries to organize the stories according to narrative mode. However, this type of organization is less than satisfactory due to Rulfo’s frequent mixing of mode within tqlpa story.