Army Alpha Examination; U.S. Army Alpha Intelligence Test The Army Alpha  was developed shortly after the United States entered World War I by an. Army Alpha and Army Beta intelligence testing were crucial in assessing and classifying individual soldiers during World War I. This testing. The correlation of Army Alpha with academic marks in high schools and military academies yields an appreciably higher correlation for the latter group.
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Kevles, “Testing the Army’s Intelligence: Their analyses of the correlations of each test with total score, of the intercorrelations of each test, and of the correlations of each test with officers’ ratings also all produced results that in most respects were similar to Thorndike’s. These were given to selected groups and the results compared with the criteria laid down. Indeed, a most important single word of advice from this office is— demonstrate your usefulness to the officers of your camp and thus command their interest and cooperation.
We are thus left with a process in which the authority of scientific knowledge is variable, changing over both time and cultural location in response to its successes and failures in meeting the demands and evaluative criteria of the constituency for whom it is constructed. As Thorndike argued in his statistical report to Yerkes: These were rated by the psychologists present on the basis of their validity as measures of intelligence. In discussing one of the tests excluded from Army a, for example, Yerkes pointed out that “it was generally agreed that the Trabue type of completion test is a better measure of intelligence than some of the other tests finally accepted, as for example, the number-comparison or memory-for-digits tests.
For copies of all of the army tests, including their directions and scoring instructions, see Yerkes, ed. Yerkes helped to initiate the serious involvement of the army by submitting to the surgeon general and the secretary of war a plan for an official army trial of the testing program he and his fellow psychologists had been developing unofficially during the preceding months. Data which have become available during the past year settle this question definitely by indicating a relatively high correlation between officers’s judgments of military value and the intelligence ratings”.
Very inferior in- telligence, but considered fit for regular service. For the next three months psychological examining contin- ued, most probably with Army a, at the relatively slow pace of about 14, recruits per month while new forms were getting printed, psychological examiners were being 44 Yerkes to Thorndike, 2 Apr.
Three characteristics stand out. What differences seem most striking? Scott had parted ways with Yerkes and his approach to aiding the military at the very start of the endeavor, in Apriland pursued his own agenda based on his experience in civilian business psychology. The most diagnostic items were selected and items referring unnecessarily to military affairs or depending upon out-of-date information were eliminated.
As World War I began to unfold, some men realized that the proper use of manpower, and more particularly of mind or brain power, would assure ultimate victory. An excellent officer and of extremely courteous demeanor and gentle- manly bearing.
Revising the Test | Facing History and Ourselves
That very day the Society of Experimentalists, a group of about forty psychologists meeting at Harvard University, proposed a number of ways in which psychology might be ap- plied to the incipient war effort and drafted a list of suggestions that, in broad a,pha, would guide psychologists’ attempts to aid the American military for the next year and a half.
Weekly Diary, folderbox 91, Yerkes Papers.
Through the efforts of the army’s Committee on Classification of Personnel, headed by psychologist Walter Dill Scott of the Carnegie Institute of Technology, new efficiency report forms were developed that mandated numerical ratings in five separate areas: Below average intelligence, but usually good privates and satisfactory in work of a routine nature.
Another Harvard professor from a later era, Stephen Jay Gould —tells the story: Making Audio and Oral Meanings Chapter Bridges, and Rose S. The test were varied in character and undoubtedly sample the most important types of intellectual process. Nonetheless, Dorr supported the continuation of psychological examining in the army, persuaded by two related factors.
A very thorough study of the reports submitted, however, has firmly convinced it that this examination will be of great value in assisting and determining the possibilities of all newly drafted men and all candidates for officers’ training camps.
As Yerkes noted in a memo to the surgeon general, “Lieut. Pedagogy and Curriculum Chapter 9: This is the Beta version of the Stanford-Binet intelligence test, which was created by Lewis Terman, a professor of education at Stanford University. There had been no need for multiple forms to prevent cheating or for multiple-choice answering to allow quick, objective scoring when individually ex- amining children or the feebleminded.
Moore, Camp Cody, reports that the Personnel Officer has assigned intekegence men partly on the basis of psychological ratings, taking care to place an equal number of A, B, C, D, and E men in each organization. While a number applauded the committee for its work, many expressed reservations of one sort or another.
Goddard and most especially Lewis M. Giving synonyms or antonyms: In this first set of assessments the answers to both questions were affirmative, and on 16 January psychological examining was officially extended to the entire army. Each item is not timed individually. Retrieved from ” https: He became President of the American Psychological Society inand encouraged the society to get involved in the First World War by devising and implementing intelligence tests for recruits to the army.
Attention had just begun to be focused on the great center of the intelligence spectrum when the war broke out, and there was as yet little sense as to what intelligence differences among the middle group really meant.
Government Printing Office, ], part 1, plate 1. Historical Origins of Psychological Research Cambridge: For further comment on the extent of the army’s use of testing see Samelson, “Putting Psychology on the Map” cit. Do not watch any other man to see what he does. Finally, a few concluding observations.
Finlay, ; Thomas M. His stoutness has never interfered with his ‘hiking’ qualities that I know of. Not only were intelligence tests administered to new recruits for at least a year after the Armistice, but in the army commissioned a new set of tests specifically designed for illiterate and non-English-speaking recruits, and it also used intelligence scores in a large study of the relationship between low mentality and the criminal or nonmilitary behavior linked to breaches of discipline.
The norms would seem to be best from ages 9 to 17, both on this point and on the number of cases. Goaded, no doubt, by a month of conversations since the development of Yerkes’s Plan about methods for pursuing military examining, the committee members de- cided in the first two days to make a number of important breaks both with Yerkes’s proposal and with common civilian testing procedures.
Wisconsin Press, ; David M. On the military side, the upshot of these three investigations was to maintain the army’s ambivalent support for psychological testing. For more infor- mation see Yerkes, ed. It offered eugenicists a more reliable, less costly, and more efficient way of measuring the mental abilities of large groups of people. The procedure finally adopted and used throughout the Army consists of two chief types of examination: