Cancer of the blood or often referred to as leukemia is a type of cancer that starts in the bone marrow, which is soft tissue in the bone that is responsible for creating red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Some cells can turn into cell leukemia, which in turn divides into healthier cells. As bone marrow cancer creates more leukemia cells, healthy cells push them out and replace them, so that it is difficult for the blood to function properly, and that leads to serious medical problems.
There are four main varieties of leukemia in two categories depending on how leukemia takes place and the differentiation between normal and abnormal cells.
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) is cancer that spreads rapidly in the blood and bone marrow. Because of the original leukemic cells, the bone marrow produces various blasts, or not, nonfunctional cells. Under healthy circumstances, these cells will develop into white blood cells that fight infection, and red blood cells carry oxygen everywhere to the body, or platelets to help clotting. However, in people who are AML, these blasts do not experience normal development and inhibit the production of new cells.
Acute Lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is cancer similar to acute myelogenous leukemia except, rather than affecting all types of cells, begins in lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are white blood cells that protect the body against infection. The bone marrow that makes cells is not widely known as blasts, which in healthy people will become lymphocytes. In ALL people, however, these blasts do not usually develop into white blood cells. Abnormal cells then take place in the mind are usually devoted to healthy cells, and inhibit the creation of new cells. This process can result in red blood cell reduction and the development of anemia, as well as a reduction in white blood cells which leads to a weak immune system.
Chronic Lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) / lymphocytic leukemia, like other types of leukemia, develops in the blood and bone marrow. Chronic leukemia takes place at a slow rate of acute leukemia, but still affects lymphocytes, which usually fight infection. CLL makes too many nonfunctional lymphocytes that take place in healthy cells. As cancer cells extend to multiply, they inhibit the effectiveness of functional lymphocytes, which leads to a weak immune system. Slow healing anemia and can also occur in CLL patients as red blood cells and platelets will be replaced with abnormal lymphocytes.
Chronic Myeloid leukemia (CML) / myelocytic leukemia is a slow-growing type of leukemia that makes the almost-functional marrow-red blood cells, white, and platelets-disproportionate numbers. Many white blood cells and platelets are made, while the number of red blood cells is formed. Blood flow begins to slow down as the number of white blood cells increases and patients may experience severe anemia due to a decrease in red blood cells.
Causes of leukemia
Until now, the matter of leukemia is not known for sure, but several factors are thought to affect the frequency of leukemia:
• Radiation. This is supported by several reports from several studies that deal with Leukemia cases that radiology employees more often have leukemia, a patient with radiotherapy more often suffers from leukemia, Leukemia is found in the victims of atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan.
• Leukemogenic. Some chemicals reported to have been identified can affect the frequency of leukemia, for example, environmental toxins such as benzene, industrial chemicals such as insecticides, medicines used for chemotherapy.
• Hereditary. People with Down Syndrome have an incidence of acute leukemia 20 times greater than ordinary people.
• Virus. Some types of viruses can generate leukemia, such as retroviruses, feline leukemia viruses, HTLV-1 in adults.
Signs and symptoms of blood cancer/leukemia
The signs for each type of leukemia vary, but common symptoms include fever and cold, fatigue, loss of appetite and weight, frequent infections, swollen lymph nodes, easy bruising or bleeding, shortness of breath, bone pain, night sweats, and bleeding enter the skin.
A complete blood count, or CBC, is a blood test that measures red blood cell count, hemoglobin level, white blood cell count, and platelet count, among others. This is generally used to diagnose leukemia. Other methods used to diagnose leukemia include marrow biopsies, spinal fluid tests, physical exams, chromosome screenings, and chest X-rays.
Therapy for leukemia may include chemotherapy, biological therapy,radiation , targeted therapies such as kinase inhibitors, and bone marrow and stem-cell transplantations. Frequent therapy systems used in dealing with patients with leukemia is a combination of Chemotherapy (chemotherapy) and administration of drugs that focus on stopping the production of abnormal white blood cells in bone marrow. Next is the handling of several symptoms and signs that have been shown by the patient’s body with a comprehensive monitor.