ECORREGIONES DEL PERÚ El prestigioso investigador peruano Antonio Brack Egg. flora y fauna ha identificado la existencia de once ecorregiones en el. Las 11 ecorregiones del Perú son: 1) MAR FRÍO DE LA CORRIENTE PERUANA 2) MAR TROPICAL 3) DESIERTO DEL PACÍFICO 4) BOSQUE SECO. Hace 4 días triptico 11 ecorregiones Es una zona de muchas neblinas. La temperatura por las noches baja a menos cero grados. Su fauna y flora es.
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Even though these forests are protected in Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape PNCAthey are threatened by fragmentation because of farming and agriculture. The aim of this study was to determine the medium and large mammalian species richness, using transect census, camera trapping, and specimen bone collection. Nine transects were ecorregionds and 21 camera trap stations were placed along 16 barck 2 in three localities of PNCA, from August to April Total sampling effort was km of transects and camera-days.
We documented 22 species; including 17 with camera trapping, 11 with transect census, and 10 with specimen collection. Camera traps were the most effective method, and four species Dasyprocta punctataCuniculus pacaLeopardus wiedii and Puma concolor were documented only with this method.
This comprised the first Peruvian record for Dasyprocta punctataand the first record for the western slope of the Peruvian Andes for Cuniculus paca. Also, both specimen collections and sightings confirm the presence of Potos flavusfirst record in the western slope of the Peruvian Andes. Panthera ecorregiondsAnronio ornatus and Saimiri sciureus are considered locally extinct, while several species are in need of further research.
11 ecorregiones triptico
We highlight the importance of the high diversity of this rainforests and encourage local authorities to give the area the highest priority in conservation. Peru holds at least species of mammals in ecroregiones ecoregions Pacheco et al. Although several inventories documented the mammal fauna of some Peruvian regions Pearson, EmmonsEmmons et al.
This issue may be attributed to the elusive behavior and nocturnal activity patterns 1 most mammalian species, and the high cost of appropriate equipment and methods for monitoring medium and large mammals such as camera trapping or genetic sampling Kelly et al.
These forest types are extremely important and because of their restricted distribution, they exhibit high endemism Brak et al. Grimwood collected grack information across Peru and registered 17 medium- and large-sized mammals for Tumbes. Pulido and Yockteng registered in PNCA 24 species but only 7 of them were recorded by direct observation and the other 17 through interviews.
The aim of this study was to determine the medium and large mammalian richness in the PNCA using a combination of traditional methods such as transect censuses, and specimen bone collection with camera trapping. Also, we reviewed previous species lists to confirm, add and discuss the occurrence of mammals in the area. Also, we provide recommendations to park managers in order to focus conservation efforts in certain areas and species of the national park.
Three major forest types can be distinguished in the study area: Equatorial Dry Forest, Pacific Tropical Rainforest, and a transitional forest; one locality per forest type was selected. Equatorial Dry Forest with a predominance of Prosopis pallidaAcacia macracantha on lower areas, and Ceiba trichistandraCordia lutea and Loxopterygium huasango on hillsides Pacheco et al.
It is dominated by Ceiba trischistandra, Cavanillesia platanifolia, Ficus jacobii, Triplaris cumingiana, Bougainvillea peruviana, Tessaria integrifolia, Inga feuillei, and Cecropia peltata PontePacheco et al. Pacific Tropical Rainforest, dense with rough topography and high humidity. Dominated by Centrolobium ochroxylum, Cordia eriostigma, Tabebuia chrysantha, Triplaris cumingiana, Gallesia integrifolia, Ficus jacobii, and Cedrela fissilis PontePacheco et al. Each station had one camera trap Bushnell trophy cam-standard edition set along animal trails, into the woods or near a stream or water source.
Also each camera trap was separated by at least 1 km, the minimum home range of the studied species Fig. Cameras were placed at an average height of 30 cm above ground Kelly and set to take three photos at one-second intervals after each detection.
Hence an area of 16 km 2 was covered with the three localities with 21 camera traps. The transects ecodregiones walked by one researcher and one local guide at approximately 1 to 1. After each sighting the species name, time, number of individuals and GPS location were ecorregjones.
A total of 35 km were placed along the three localities. Ecorregionfs dry season was surveyed from August to December while the rainy season from January to April of After each survey of either transect census or camera trapping the surroundings were searched for evidence of mammalian species.
Skulls and other bones on eccorregiones ground were collected in plastic bags and labeled with the date, time, GPS location and type of specimen.
Each survey sample transects and camera traps was standardized by sampling completeness using the coverage-based rarefaction method proposed by Chao and Jostconfidence intervals were obtained with bootstraps. The sampling unit for the transect census was the transect 76 in total while for cameras was one night per camera in totalno extrapolation was needed.
We follow the nomenclature of Wilson and ReederPacheco et al. We registered 22 medium- and large-sized mammals in the three types of forest: The coverage-based accumulation curve shows that camera trapping performed better than transect census rback Transect censuses had a sample completeness of We obtained records of 17 medium- and large-sized mammals in camera days Table 1. Latency to initial detection number of days needed for the first mammal detection was seven camera-days for the dry season and 21 camera-days for the rainy season.
LAS 11 ECORREGIONES DEL PERU by Ivonne Contreras on Prezi
The 15 species were registered during the first 53 days or camera-days Fig. After km of diurnal and nocturnal census transects, 45 independent records of 11 medium and large mammals were obtained Table 1. The most registered species with this method was Mazama americana Erxleben, with 15 sightings, followed by the primates Alouatta palliata Gray, with 11 sightings, and Cebus albifrons with six.
Pecari tajacu Linnaeus, had only five sightings while Tamandua mexicana Saussure, and Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, only two. The other seven species were represented only by a single sighting during the whole study period Table 1. The identification of these specimens was confirmed with museum vouchers. The species recorded were Potos flavus Schreber, which was previously sighted in V. In this study we report the presence of three new species for the area and the western slope of the Peruvian Andes.
We report 22 species of medium- and large-sized mammals in PNCA using three sampling methods, confirming that multiple non-invasive methodologies are required to register the complete mammalian fauna Gompper et al.
Camera trapping was more effective at registering several medium and large cryptic carnivores Fig. On the other hand, transect censuses were better at registering arboreal species such as A.
Also, specimen collection was extremely helpful in registering arboreal and nocturnal species as P. Compared to them we found no evidence of seven species: Bradypus variegatus SchinzCyclopes didactylus LinnaeusTamandua tetradactyla LinnaeusCoendou bicolor TschudiSylvilagus brasiliensis LinnaeusLeopardus colocolo Molinaand Panthera onca Linnaeus From their list we did not find any evidence of T. Cuvier registered by track Table 1.
The fur color pattern of T. According to Gardnerthe subspecies found in Tumbes is T. The arboreal Bradypus variegatusCyclopes didactylus and Coendou bicolor previously registered by Pulido and Yockteng are cryptic arboreal species. In consequence, to confirm its presence a species-specific research needs to be developed. Sylvilagus brasiliensis, also registered by Pulido and Yocktengcould have been mistaken with Dasyprocta punctata because some local people in Ecuador Tiriraand people from Tumbes as well, call it “conejo” rabbit in Spanishwhich also is the common name for S.
Nonetheless, further research needs to be carried out in order to confirm the species in the area. In the Lambayeque Equatorial Dry Forest, south of our study site, this species relative abundance is about This pattern in the adjacent forest suggests that there may be some competition between these two small cats.
In our study area we registered the small cats, L. Still, more survey effort needs to be obtained to confirm its presence.
Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire was seen by one researcher in an expedition in V. Nonetheless, we could not get any photograph of this species with camera trapping what suggests that this might be a rare species in the area. However, at present there is no confirmed evidence of its presence. Local farmers are familiar with these animals but believe that they are no longer present.
We agree with this statement due to the fact that jaguars when present are usually registered in camera photos, even with low capture frequency Ecorrebiones et al. Moreover, world jaguar distribution surveys from Sanderson et al. In this scenario the possibility of a remaining population of jaguars in the area is scarce. Another species that might have suffered the same fate is the Andean bear Tremarctos ornatus. Unfortunately, new records are lacking even though local people remember its presence; the last record we could obtain by interviews was around from a footprint near the Ecuadorian border, sighted by one of our local guides.
Until there had been at least two undergraduate theses AlzamoraM. Although we had several encounters with C. Based on the above evidence, we suggest antohio these ecoregiones species; Panthera oncaTremarctos ornatus and Saimiri sciureus should be considered locally extinct. Also reported are Dasyprocta punctata, the first record for Peruvian fauna, and both Cuniculus paca and Potos flavus as first recordings for the western slope of the Peruvian Andes.
The subspecies found in the study area would correspond to Dasyprocta punctata chocoensis Cabrerabut direct examination of vouchers is required to confirm determination. Currently, the species is known in Peru only in the eastern side of the Andes Pacheco et al. Because these three species Dasyprocta punctataCuniculus paca and Potos flavus were found only in the transitional forest and Pacific Tropical Rainforest we believe that PNCA likely is the southern limit of their distribution; further south the area becomes dryer and more open and less suitable for these species.
PNCA is an area of unique diversity but also of great concern because several species are listed as threatened or endangered. The primates found in the area are at risk of extinction, especially C. Even though Nasua nasua is listed as low concern, in Tumbes we believe it should be categorized as Data Deficient or Vulnerable because local people hunt males for their bacula which is erroneously thought to increase sexual properties in men.
Additionally, some people not familiar with the species also hunt Procyon cancrivorus. Furthermore, the fact that at least three species are now considered locally extinct may indicate that the area of PNCA is insufficient to hold large carnivores. This statement is relevant to the PNCA, since we found that the buffer area, comprised of dry forest and transitional forest, was greatly impacted by anthropogenic activities such as farming and agriculture we documented high capture rate of cattle in camera trapping.
We also registered a full skeleton of Leopardus pardalis poisoned by farmers because it preyed on their poultry; this confirms human-carnivore conflicts, also expressed in interviews. This small cat feeds on chicken and eggs causing monetary losses for farmers who end up killing them. Furthermore, illegal boulder extraction is being carried out within the limits of the national park; altering the course of streams or disperses them among multiple channels, making them almost nonexistent.
Several photographs of dogs and hunters were obtained which suggests that hunting for bush meat Mazama americana and Pecari tajacu is fairly common. The presence of people resulted in the theft of three camera traps, later replaced to continue the study. Also, illegal logging is common and hard to control by park guards because of limited personnel. As result, this rainforest is losing its connectivity with the forest in Ecuador see Hansen et al. The area of Campo Verde should be one of the better protected parts of the National Park; it holds great diversity and is threatened by locals and foreigners.